More Buenaventura Birds

What a great place for birds!  It was great to be back in Buenaventura Reserve. Following up on my post from last year, here are a few more birds from Jocotoco Foundation’s. Buenaventura Reserve in the southern foothills of the Ecuadorian Andes.

Three species of toucans appear frequently around Umbrellabird Lodge  what is it*****. The most vocal is the Chestnut-mandibled Toucan with its incessant yelping.

Chestnut-mandibled Toucan, Buenaventura Reserve

The Choco Toucan seems like a smaller version of the Chestnut-mandibled, but it croaks instead of yelps.

Choco Toucan, Buenaventura Ecological Reserve

The Pale-billed Aracari also commonly shows up near Umbrellabird Lodge. This one found what appears to be the egg of a chachalaca.

Pale-billed Aracari,  Buenaventura Ecological Reserve

Bronze-winged Parrots pass overhead frequently, but once in a while they stop to forage in nearby trees.

Bronze-winged Parrots, Buenaventura Reserve

Plumbeous kites nest in a tree near the lodge. I have seen them take hummingbirds. But, during this visit, I watched them return to their perch with a cicada six times.

Plumbeous Kite preening, Buenaventura Reserve

Since Debbie was in Cuenca studying Spanish, I spent a lot of time with the single males at the lek (communal male display grounds).

Usually the White-bearded Manakin maintains a well-groomed face…

White-bearded Manakin, Buenaventura Reserve

…but when displaying at the lek, it extends its white beard. Then it launches itself, zipping back and forth between two vertical saplings, snapping its wings in the air.

White-bearded Manakin, Buenaventura Reserve

The lek of the Long-wattled Umbrellabird is more spread out than that of the manakin’s. Usually only one male is visible from a single vantage point in the lek, but the foghorn calls of several males are audible throughout the lek. A male can quickly double the length of its wattle. Here it is partially extended.

Long-wattled Umbrellabird, Buenaventura Reserve

Buenaventura Reserve was established in 2001 primarily to protect the El Oro Parakeet, which was discovered by Robert Ridgely, Paul Greenfield, and Rosanne Rowlett in 1980.

El Oro Parakeet, Buenaventura Reserve

In 2006, Jocotoco Foundation initiated a major nest box program for the El Oro Parakeet. This has significantly increased the population. However, the total population of the species remains below 1,000. The decline is primarily due to deforestation, which has reduced the total area of forest in the region to 5% of the original cover. Natural nest cavities are also rare since much of the forest is young. The foundation is working to create a corridor across private and public land to protect the parakeet.

El Oro Parakeet, Buenaventura Reserve

In addition to the breeding pair, there are usually several helpers at the nest. Most of these are close relatives. Up to 13 birds have been seen entering a box.

El Oro Parakeets, Buenaventura Reserve

The helpers rarely participate in the breeding. That is left to the single mated pair.

El Oro Parakeet, Buenaventura Reserve

The Jocotoco Foundation monitors productivity of the parakeets nesting in boxes.

Leovigildo Cabrera climbs to monitor nest box

A nestling is removed from the box while an ant nest is evicted.

Nestling El Oro Parakeet

I regret that I had to leave out another 334 species, but I will close with a shot of the forest.

Secondary forest, Buenaventura Reserve

 

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Seeing Red in Tapichalaca

Melastome leaf on sphagnum moss, Ecuador, Prov. Zamora-Chinchipe, Tapichalaca Reserve

Take a look around the cloud forest and you will notice a lot of red accents in the dark green world. Here you can see a few of those red eye-poppers from Tapichalaca Reserve in southern Ecuador.

Ecuador, Prov. Zamora-Chinchipe, Tapichalaca Reserve

Young leaves often start out without chlorophyll and, in the case of red leaves, with an abundance of anthocyanins. The reason is unclear. Do red pigments provide UV protection for the leaves? Do they inhibit fungi? Are red leaves less recognizable to insect grazers looking for tasty young leaves to devour? The scientific jury is still out on this.

Fern leaf, Tapichalaca Reserve

While the reason so many young leaves are red remains a mystery, it is obvious why so many flowers are. In one word: hummingbirds. These energetic pollinators are particularly diverse in the Andes. Like most birds, their vision is sensitive in the red area of the spectrum. Plants have co-evolved with them, to take advantage of the hummingbirds’ visual strengths.

Collared Inca at Cavendishia, Tapichalaca Reserve

A few of the many red flowers of the cloud forest:

Ericaceae: Cavendishia, Tapichalaca Reserve

Ericaceae: Psammisia, Tapichalaca Reserve

Campanulaceae: Centropogon sp. Tapichalaca Reserve

Orchidaceae: Masdevallia, Tapichalaca Reserve

The same goes for fruit. It is often red to take advantage of birds’ visual sensitivity to red.

Cyclanthaceae: Sphaerodenia fruit Tapichalaca Reserve

A few miles north of Tapichalaca, I recently visited a cloud forest just below treeline. Notice all the reddish leaves.

Ecuador, Prov. Loja, Cerro Toledo

Hey, what’s this brown bird doing in this red post?

Jocotoco Antpitta on the run, Tapichalaca Reserve

I couldn’t mention Tapichalaca Reserve without mentioning the bird that is responsible for saving it. It was the discovery of the Jocotoco Antpitta that led to the creation of this beautiful reserve and eleven others.

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Copalinga: Moth Mania

Ecuador, Prov. Zamora-Chinchipe, Copalinga

As promised at the end of my butterfly post, I am presenting a small selection of the countless moths of Copalinga Reserve of the Jocotoco Foundation. We heard many oohs and ahs when people came to look at the moths attracted to light. Dominik Hofer set up a bright light bulb with a sheet behind it to observe a sampling of Copalinga’s incredible moth fauna. When Dominik went back to Switzerland, he kindly left the light for us.

Moths would be quite frightening if they were as big as us.

Ecuador, Prov. Zamora-Chinchipe, Copalinga

The diversity of moths is overwhelming. Worldwide there are ten times as many moths as butterflies.

Moths have evolved numerous ways to defend themselves. Like many moths the Automeris moth below has a pattern that blends with dead leaves.

Automeris

Saturniidae: Automerina auletes

When threatened it will spread its wings and scare the predator away with a huge pair of eyes.

Saturniidae: Automerina auletes

When I tried to move the tiger moth below, it exuded a little droplet of yellow liquid. I have read that it is bitter, but I neglected to taste it.

The tiger moth also displayed its blue and orange abdomen. Perhaps this is meant to mimic a foul tasting millipede or other obnoxious critter. Many tiger moths have ears to detect bats. They are hidden on the thorax, near the base of the wing.

Tiger Moth Hypercompe sp. in defensive posture

You might think its adorable face alone would be enough to deter a predator. It looks too cute to eat.

Tiger Moth, Hypercompe sp

Paradirphia has a similar strategy to the tiger moth. It falls to the ground when attacked. The wings resemble dead leaves and the abdomen appears to mimic a toxic caterpillar.

Saturniidae: Paradirphia sp.

Another good moth trick is to look like a wasp. Don’t worry, moths don’t sting.

Arctiidae, Ctenchinae, Macrocneme sp.

To learn more about nasty and deceptive tricks of insects, read my first book, Bizarre Bugs.

I’ll close with  one moth-watcher and a few more choice moths from Copalinga.

I check sheet for new moths in Copalinga.

Geometridae, Smicropus eucyrta

Geometridae: Phrygionis sp.

Geometridae: Silbaractis sp.

Ecuador, Prov. Zamora-Chinchipe, Copalinga

Geometridae: Chloropteryx sp.

Megalopygidae, Trosia sp.

Ecuador, Prov. Zamora-Chinchipe Copalinga Reserve

Ecuador, Prov. Zamora-Chinchipe, Copalinga

Ecuador, Prov. Zamora-Chinchipe, Copalinga

Ecuador, Prov. Zamora-Chinchipe, Copalinga

 

Crambidae: Siga liris

Thanks to Dominik Hofer for some ID’s and corrections.

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Copalinga Butterfly Bonanza

King Page Swallowtail Heraclides thoas  Copalinga Reserve

Happy New Year!  I’m sending this greeting from beautiful Copalinga Reserve, the twelfth addition to the Jocotoco Conservation Foundation reserve network. The reserve was originally established by Catherine Vits and Boudewijn De Roover 20 years ago, but only recently passed into Jocotoco management. It is best known for its amazing birds, some of which I highlighted in a post last year.

Rhetus dysoni  Copalinga Reserve

Situated on the eastern flanks of the Andes at about 1,000 m above sea level, Copalinga is at an ideal altitude to observe a multitude of plant and animal species in a comfortable climate. A recent tour group led by David Geale accompanied by butterfly expert Kim Garwood confirmed this. In three days at Copalinga, the butterfly enthusiasts observed 170 species of butterflies. No doubt that was only a modest sampling of what the reserve has to offer lepidopterists.

David Geale zooms in on butterflies by Rio Bombuscaro

David’s foul mixture of rotten shrimp and urine apparently is irresistible to butterflies. This helped draw in and mesmerize many species making them easy to photograph. Of course, you have to be careful where you kneel, or your pants become alluring to butterflies as well. At the same time, this may repel your own mate, as happened to me with my normally understanding wife.

Some butterflies have beautiful subtle patterns like the Common Bentwing skipper below.

Common Bentwing Ebrietas anacreon

Others are more striking. The differences in color and pattern between the dorsal and ventral sides of the wings can be startling, as seen with this black and red Ancylurus.

Ancylurus sp.

Now check it out with the vibrant blue, turquoise and purple from below.

Ancylurus sp.

Some butterflies change color with the angle at which you view them. At this angle  we see four purely turquoise patches.

Doxocopa laurentia cherubina Copalinga Reserve

Note how the patches now show electric blue on the fringes.

Doxocopa laurentia cherubina Copalinga Reserve

What I found amusing was that most of the butterfly enthusiasts on the tour paid little attention to the overwhelming diversity of moths on the reserve. But Dominik Hofer from Switzerland was an exception. He set up a light to attract moths to a sheet at night. The variety of forms and intricate patterns was amazing. Below are three examples.

moth #1 Copalinga

moth #2  Copalinga

moth # 3   Copalinga

Guess I’ll have to do a separate post on moths. There are soooo many.

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A Visit to Frog Heaven

Barking Treefrog, Hyla gratiosa in a seasonal pond

Barking Treefrog, Hyla gratiosa, in a seasonal pond

It’s been a while since I visited my favorite ponds in Delaware where I have spent many hours photographing.  Carlos Martinez Rivera, herpetologist and frog conservationist with the Philadelphia Zoo, wanted to see Barking Treefrogs, so I was inspired to return at the end of May. These ponds fill with water in the fall and dry out completely most summers. Such seasonal ponds are called vernal pools and are known locally on the Delmarva Peninsula as Delmarva Bays.

Barking Treefrogs amplexus

Barking Treefrogs in amplexus

Barking Treefrogs come down out of the trees in May and June to mate. When a male finds a female he climbs on her back and holds on tight. This nuptial embrace is called amplexus. He will stay with her until she lays eggs in the pond while he fertilizes them.

Barking treefrog

Barking Treefrog calling in pond

Most males do not find mates until they reach the pond. Note the difference in color between this frog and those in the previous photo. When they enter the water (perhaps due to temperature?) they change to a duller, greenish-brown hue.

male barking treefrog

Male Barking Treefrog with vocal sac extended while calling.

The advertisement call that male barking treefrogs broadcast from the pond is “toonk, toonk, etc.” When they are in the trees they bark.

Cope's Gray Treefrog male

Cope’s Gray Treefrog, Hyla chrysoscelis,  male between calls

Another one of the ten species of frogs breeding in this pool is Cope’s Gray Treefrog. This one is puffed up and ready to call.

Cope's Gray Treefrog calling

Cope’s Gray Treefrog calling

Cope’s Gray Treefrog calls with a fast, high pitched, unmusical trill.

Eastern Gray Treefrog,

Eastern Gray Treefrog, Hyla versicolor, male calling

If it wasn’t for the slower, lower-pitched, more musical call of the Eastern Gray Treefrog, it wouldn’t be possible to tell them apart from Cope’s Gray Treefrog in the field. Eastern Gray Treefrogs are tetraploid, meaning they have four sets of chromosomes instead of two like Cope’s Gray Treefrog or most other animals. Apparently they evolved from Cope’s Gray Treefrog. This type of evolution from diploid to tetraploid is more common in plants.

Northern Cricket Frog

Northern Cricket Frog, Acris crepitans, male calling on floating Polygonum leaf

Knock two pebbles together and you can imitate the call of the Northern Cricket Frog. Males often call from floating leaves. This tiny member of the treefrog family lacks the expanded toe pads that allow other treefrogs to scale trees.

Bull Frog

Bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus, male floating in pond

Danger lurks in the dark waters. Bullfrogs, the largest of our frogs, may make a meal of any of the above frogs.

Frog Heaven children's book

The best book about vernal pools

I love these ponds so much, I wrote a whole book about them. Frog Heaven: Ecology of a Vernal Pool follows a pond from the time it fills in the fall until it dries out in the summer. Vernal pools are critical to amphibians as well as many aquatic invertebrates, ironically because they dry up for part of the year. This keeps fish, major predators, out of the ponds. Find out more about Frog Heaven here.

 

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Yanacocha

Sitting high above Quito, Ecuador, Yanacocha Reserve is a convenient place to visit a temperate Andean forest.  Being so close to Ecuador’s capital, Yanacocha is the Jocotoco Conservation Foundation’s most visited reserve.

Since clouds frequently envelope this forest, epiphytes (plants that grow on other plants without harming them) abound.

Temperate Andean forest

Epiphyte-covered trees in this temperate Andean forest

For us flatlanders who visit for only a couple of days, climbing hills at 3,200 m (10,500 ft) can literally be a breathtaking experience. Fortunately, the main trail though the reserve, the Trocha Inca, is a flat and easy hike.

Inca Trail, Trocha Inca

Trocha Inca (Inca Trail)

Nectar-eating birds are the most conspicuous birds at Yanacocha. One group, the flowerpiercers, cheat flowers by using their hooked beak to pierce the base of the corolla (flower tube). In an instant they drink the nectar without touching the pollen. Consequently, the flower gets nothing out of the deal.

Glossy Flowerpiercer

Glossy Flowerpiercer

More than 30 species of hummingbirds inhabit the reserve, though only about one third of them regularly use the feeders. The beautiful vent of the Sapphire-vented Puffleg can be hard to see behind its bright white booties.

Sapphire-vented Puffleg

Sapphire-vented Puffleg

Perhaps the most common species at the feeders is the Buff-winged Starfrontlet.

Buff-winged Starfrontlet

Buff-winged Starfrontlet

With a beak longer in proportion to its body length than any other bird, the Sword-billed Hummingbird can gain exclusive access to long tubular flower such as certain passionflowers.

Sword-billed Hummingbird

Sword-billed Hummingbird

The Imperial Snipe is a difficult bird to see, but Yanacocha is one of the best places to find one. It inhabits Polylepis forest and wet paramo (high elevation Andean grassland). It is most reliably found at dawn and dusk when it calls during its display flight, but we were lucky to find it during the day in the forest.

Imperial Snipe

Imperial Snipe foraging

Imperial Snipe

Imperial Snipe

Imperial Snipe

Imperial Snipe

Imperial Snipe

Imperial Snipe scratching

Imperial Snipe

Imperial Snipe

Don’t worry; they don’t bite.

Imperial Snipe

Imperial Snipe yawning

Just outside the reserve we flushed this Short-eared Owl.

Short-eared Owl

Short-eared Owl

Forests of Polylepis grow at high elevation in many parts of the Andes. Unfortunately they have been severely depleted over much of their range.

Polylepis forest

Polylepis forest

Another typical plant of the high Andes, Gunnera, is noteworthy for it huge leaves.

Gunnera leaf

Gunnera leaf

As the young leaves expand, they take on some amazing forms.

Young Gunnera leaf

Young Gunnera leaf

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Young Gunnera leaf

Young Gunnera leaf

Jocotoco Conservation Foundation has built a beautiful interpretive center at Yanacocha Reserve with engaging displays. A cozy cafeteria sits on top of the center. The center is particularly busy on weekends since it is just a 45-minute drive from Quito.

Yanacocha Interpretive Center

Liliana and Ximena at Yanacocha Interpretive Center

This ends my Jocotoco posts for the season. Many thanks to all of the employees and board members of Jocotoco Conservation Foundation and Jocotours for making our work possible and enjoyable. And thanks to you readers for vicariously coming along on the adventure.

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Narupa – Hidden Treasure

An inconspicuous trail in a bend of the road leads to Narupa Reserve, one of Jocotoco Conservation Foundation’s ten reserves. Narupa is located between the towns of Baeza and Coca where the Andes approach the Amazonian lowlands. A ten minute walk down the trail brings you to a hummingbird garden and a casita (little house), the only building in the reserve. Here at an elevation of about 1,000 m, elements of tropical and subtropical faunas mix.

Narupa trail

Narupa trail

Though I had only two days to explore this reserve, I got a good taste for the rich diversity of life there. Mixed bird fl0cks include a variety of tanagers, migrant warblers (including Cerulean), furnariids, and more. Beautiful forests clothe the hillside.

Foothill forest

Foothill forest at Narupa

A visit to the hummingbird garden was a great place to begin. Several of the hummingbirds here are foothill birds that live primarily at the lowest part of the eastern Andes. Golden-tailed Sapphires are most common in foothill forest but are also found in the Amazonian lowlands.

Golden-tailed Sapphire

Golden-tailed Sapphire female

Golden-tailed Sapphire

Golden-tailed Sapphire male

Golden-tailed Sapphire

Golden-tailed Sapphire male

Another foothill species, the Many-spotted Hummingbird is a feisty bird, frequently chasing other hummingbirds from flowers or feeders.

Many-spotted Hummingbird

Many-spotted Hummingbird attack

At this altitude (1,000 m) there is a good mix of Amazonian and Andean faunas. Gould’s Jewelfront is primarily a lowland species, but it also gets up as high as Narupa’s hummingbird garden.

Goulds Jewelfront

Gould’s Jewelfront

The bridge over the Río Hollin Chico is a good place to spot river-dwelling birds and takes you over to beautiful forest. Birders on the bridge are Gabriela Silva, our friend from Jocotours, and Geronimo Tanguila, one of Narupa’s forest guards.

Birders on hanging bridge

Birders on hanging bridge

Forest trail Narupa

Forest trail Narupa

Tree buttresses

Tree buttresses

A nighttime walk just outside the reserve is a rewarding experience. Here are a couple of gems I spotted in my headlamp beam.

This Somber Stream-Lizard was roosting peacefully on a twig.

Somber Stream-Lizard

Somber Stream-Lizard, Galenesaurus cochranae

Stick insects (Phasmidae) are generally nocturnal and are much easier to spot at night.

Phasmid stick insect

Phasmid stick insect

The restaurant “Susanita,” just a 15-minute walk down the road from the reserve entrance, has typical Ecuadoran food as well as two beautiful rooms overlooking the Cascada de Hollin, where guests can stay.

 

 

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Jorupe Birds and More

In February my wife Debbie and I served as volunteer hosts once again at Jorupe Reserve.  The reserve, located on the southern border of Ecuador, is owned by the Jocotoco Conservation Foundation. We noticed a number of changes since our time at the reserve the previous year.

Perhaps the most conspicuous difference in bird life was the huge flocks of Red-masked Parakeets. Last year we saw small groups with perhaps a dozen or so in each group. This year they numbered up to 100 in a flock.

Red-masked Parakeet

Red-masked Parakeet

Like most parakeets, Red-masked Parakeets are extremely vocal. But they can also be silent, then suddenly erupt raucously from a nearby tree.

Red-masked ParakeetRed-masked Parakeet

Red-masked Parakeet

Another interesting difference was the shortage of birds at the feeding station. The rains had produced a wealth of insect prey. With plenty of bugs, and breeding season underway, why would birds stuff themselves at a feeder on dry corn, even if it was non-GMO? An exception, though, were Blue Ground-Doves, which appeared in large numbers.

Blue Ground-Dove males and females

Blue Ground-Dove males and females

Raptors are particularly conspicous at Jorupe. This Savannah Hawk had just dived at a Laughing Falcon.

Savannah Hawk

Savannah Hawk

The Laughing Falcon had a nest tucked into a cavity of a Ceiba tree hidden behind epiphytes.

Laughing Falcon _F5A9464

Laughing Falcon peers out from nest cavity

Yawn!

Laughing Falcon

Laughing Falcon

Peruvian Pygmy-Owls can be seen and heard both day and night.

Peruvian Pygmy-Owl

Peruvian Pygmy-Owl

An Ecuadorian Trogon strikes a conceited pose.

Ecuadorian Trogon

Ecuadorian Trogon

Birders coming to Jorupe have Pale-browed Tinamou on their “must-see” list. But this year some birders “dipped” (Brit-speak for missed the bird) since the tinamous were not coming regularly to the feeding station.

Pale-browed Tinamou calling

Pale-browed Tinamou calling

Pale-browed Tinamou

Pale-browed Tinamou

Pale-browed Tinamous are notoriously difficult to see away from the feeding station, so I felt particularly lucky to photograph a nest that was discovered when the forest guards cleared roadside growth.

Pale-browed Tinamou nest

Pale-browed Tinamou nest and eggs

Pale-browed Tinamou on nest

Pale-browed Tinamou on nest

Unlike tinamous, gregarious Fasciated Wrens are not discrete in their nesting habits.

Fasciated Wren at nest

Fasciated Wren at nest

We had the pleasure of spending time with ornithologist Graham Montgomery, who is spending several months in Ecuador studying species boundaries. Here he is checking out birds in a Ceiba tree.

Ornithologist in Jorupe forest

Ornithologist in Jorupe forest

I resisted temptation to pick up this Black-tailed Indigo Snake. Last year I wrapped myself up in one for my Facebook picture, inadvertently letting it cover me with its strong defensive scent. I was reminded of the event for weeks every time I lifted my stinky binoculars.

Black-tailed Indigo Snake

Black-tailed Indigo Snake

Robber flies seemed to be abundant along the trail. This one grabbed a leafcutter ant. You have to admire its ability to eat while hanging on to a leaf with only one leg.

Robber Fly preys on male leafcutter ant

Robber Fly preys on male leafcutter ant

The comedor (dining hall) provides nice refuge during the six o’clock mosquito hour.

comedor

Comedor (dining hall)

At other times, the porch is a comfortable place to relax and bird.

Jourpe Comedor porch

Jourpe comedor porch

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Pecking the Pico-Pico at Buenaventura

Pale-billed Aracari eats pico-pico fruit

Pale-billed Aracari eats pico-pico fruit

It’s January and the pico-pico is fruiting at Buenaventura Reserve in El Oro Province of southern Ecuador. The reserve was created by the Jocotoco Conservation Foundation primarily to protect habitat for the El Oro Parakeet, but another 350 other species of birds are also protected on the reserve.

The pico-pico (Acnistus arborescens) a member of the tomato family, produces a copious crop of pea-sized, orange fruits. These are sought after by a wide variety of birds and at least some mammals. I have personally tasted the pico-pico, but can’t recommend it unless you have nothing else to eat.

The list of pico-pico-eaters is long. Tanagers dominate in terms of number of species, but coatis consume the largest quantity of berries here around the Umbrellabird Lodge at Buenaventura.

Palm Tanager

Palm Tanager

Lemon-rumped Tanager

Lemon-rumped Tanager

 

Bay-headed Tanager

Bay-headed Tanager

Bay-headed Tanager

Bay-headed Tanager

Silver-throated Tanager and Thick-billed Euphonia

Silver-throated Tanager and Thick-billed Euphonia

 

Silver-throated Tanager and pico-pico

Silver-throated Tanager perched upon pico-pico

Thick-billed Euphonia female

Thick-billed Euphonia female

Thick-billed Euphonia, immature male Ecuador, Prov. El Oro, Buenaventura Ecological Reserve,

Thick-billed Euphonia, immature male

Bananaquits

Bananaquits

 

Choco Toucan

Choco Toucan

Pale-billed Aracari

Pale-billed Aracari

Rufous-headed Chachalaca juvenile

Rufous-headed Chachalaca juvenile

White-nosed Coati _F5A9023

Coati, Nasua narica

White-nosed Coati _F5A8995

Coati, Nasua narica

When the pico-pico ripens it is a super-abundant resource and everybody partakes.

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Copalinga

Green Honeycreeper, male

Green Honeycreeper, male

Copalinga, a delightful ecolodge, sits above the Rio Bombuscaro near the eastern base of the Andes in southern Ecuador. The lodge is owned and run by Catherine and Boudewijn, who built it after moving there from Belgium in 1998. Debbie and I spent 16 days volunteering on various projects while enjoying its bountiful natural treasures.

Copalinga outdoor dining

Copalinga outdoor dining (photo by Debbie Carr)

Copalinga’s most famous resident is the Gray Tinamou. Elsewhere this bird is tough to see, but it appears daily near a viewing blind 10 minutes up the trail.

Gray Tinamou

Gray Tinamou

Copalinga is also known for its diversity of tanagers, many of which visit feeders at the lodge.

Green-and-gold Tanager

Green-and-gold Tanager

Ecuador, Prov. Zamora-Chinchipe, Copalinga

Golden-eared Tanager and Golden Tanager

Thick-billed Euphonia

Thick-billed Euphonia female

Thick-billed Euphonia

Thick-billed Euphonia male

This Thick-billed Euphonia may be doing its business, but it is also taking care of business for a mistletoe plant.

Thick-billed Euphonia

Thick-billed Euphonia

Mistletoe grows on tree branches, penetrating the wood to get its nutrients. It uses a special trick to get the euphonia to deposit its seeds in the proper place.

Mistletoe fruits

Mistletoe fruits

The slimy seeds stick to the euphonia’s rear end so that it must wipe them off on a branch just where the mistletoe needs to germinate.

Thick-billed Euphonia, wiping mistletoe seeds onto branch

Thick-billed Euphonia, wiping mistletoe seeds onto branch

There are plenty of other captivating birds flitting around Copalinga. These two vie for title of noisiest species.

Inca Jays

Inca Jays

Speckled Chachalaca

Speckled Chachalaca

The property has a high diversity of hummingbirds, with more species than the entire U.S.

Violet-fronted Brilliant

Violet-fronted Brilliant

I had the honor of documenting the 34th species of hummingbird for Copalinga with the following photograph.

Purple-collared Woodstar

Purple-collared Woodstar

The diversity of other animals is equally impressive. A few examples:

A cryptic katydid

A cryptic katydid

And a closer view of its face. Note the ear,  a tiny slit near the joint of its front leg.

A cryptic katydid

A cryptic katydid

My favorite insect, the machaca.

Peanuthead Bug or Machaca, Fulgora

Peanuthead Bug or Machaca, Fulgora

A member of the raccoon family, the coati.

South American Coati, Nasua nasua

South American Coati, Nasua nasua

While prowling about at night with my headlamp, I found this treefrog at the edge of a puddle.

Red-skirted Treefrog, Dendropsophus rhodopeplus

Red-skirted Treefrog, Dendropsophus rhodopeplus

The scenery from the excellent trail system beckons.

Mountains beyond Copalinga

Mountains beyond Copalinga

View from trail in Copalinga

View from trail in Copalinga

An added benefit, the Bombuscaro entrance to Podocarpus National Park is just a few minutes down the road.

Debbie and me on hanging bridge, Rio Bombuscaro

Debbie and me on hanging bridge, Rio Bombuscaro

It was great to witness this private conservation effort first hand and see what two people (with a great deal of help) can do to protect valuable habitat.

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